Endothelial cells seeded in hydrogel can form perfusable microvasculature networks by a vasculogenesis-like process. This approach can be used to develop advanced in vitro models where the interactions between a functional vasculature (characterized by mature vessel walls and tissue parenchyma) is critical to mimic pathophysiological processes (intra- and extravasation processes involving leukocytes and cancer cells). Diffusion and effects of therapeutics can be tested in complex microenvironments.
The DAX-1 chip design is suitable for vasculogenesis assays; however, the detailed protocols for the AIM chips are currently being developed. Please refer to (3) and (4) in the publication list below for papers that used PDMS versions of the chip to conduct this assay.
Users can submit their protocols to be referenced in this section and given due credit.
Whisler et al. (1) used a 3-gel design in their paper that allowed fibroblasts to be co-cultured alongside (but not in contact with) endothelial cells. Chen et al. (2) used a 2-gel design to meet the same objective.
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- Control of Perfusable Microvascular Network Morphology Using a Multiculture Microfluidic System. Whisler JA, Chen MB, Kamm RD. Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods, 2014. 20 (7):543-552
- In Vitro Microvessel Growth and Remodeling within a Three-Dimensional Microfluidic Environment. Park Y, Tu T-Y, Lim S, Clement IM, Yang S, Kamm R. Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering, 2014. 7 (1):15-25
- Generation of 3D functional microvascular networks with human mesenchymal stem cells in microfluidic systems. Jeon JS, Bersini S, Whisler JA, Chen MB, Dubini G, Charest JL, . . . Kamm RD. Integr. Biol., 2014. 6 (5):555-563
- Human Vascular Tissue Models Formed from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Derived Endothelial Cells. Belair DG, Whisler JA, Valdez J, Velazquez J, Molenda JA, Vickerman V, . . . Murphy WL. Stem Cell Reviews and Reports, 2015. 11 (3):511-525
- Elucidation of the Roles of Tumor Integrin β1 in the Extravasation Stage of the Metastasis Cascade. Chen MB, Lamar JM, Li R, Hynes RO, Kamm RD. Cancer Res., 2016. 76 (9):2513-2524
- On-chip human microvasculature assay for visualization and quantitation of tumor cell extravasation dynamics. Chen MB, Whisler JA, Fröse J, Yu C, Shin YJ and Kamm RD. Nat Protoc. 2017 May; 12(5): 865–880.
- *Functional human 3D microvascular networks on a chip to study the procoagulant effects of ambient fine particulate matter. Li Y, Pi QM, Wang PC, Liu LJ, Han ZG, Shao Y, Zhai Y, Zuo ZY, Gong ZY, Yang X, Yang W. RSC Adv., 2017, 7, 56108–56116